Thursday, 12 July 2012

Primary Curriculum - English (5 - 11 Years/ Grades 1 - 6)



Stage 1
• Hear, read and write initial letter sounds.
• Know the name and most common sound associated with every letter in the English alphabet.
• Identify separate sounds (phonemes) within words, which may be represented by more than one letter, e.g. ‘th’, ‘ch’, ‘sh’.
• Use knowledge of sounds to read and write single syllable words with short vowels.
• Blend to read, and segment to spell, words with final and initial adjacent consonants, e.g. b-l, n-d.
• Begin to learn common spellings of long vowel phonemes, e.g. ‘ee’,  ‘ai’, ‘oo’.
• Use knowledge of sounds to write simple regular words, and to attempt other words.
• Spell familiar common words accurately, drawing on sight vocabulary.
• Use rhyme and relate this to spelling patterns.
• Recognise common word endings, e.g. -s, -ed and -ing.

Grammar and punctuation

Reading
• Pause at full stops when reading.
• Identify sentences in a text.
• Know that a capital letter is used for I, for proper nouns and for the
   start of a sentence.

Writing
Mark some sentence endings with a full stop.
• Write sentence-like structures which may be joined by and.

Reading
The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 1:
Fiction and poetry: real life stories, traditional tales from different
cultures, fantasy stories, poetry and plays.
Non-fiction: non-chronological report, simple recount, instructions.

Fiction and poetry
• Join in with reading familiar, simple stories and poems. Demonstrate an understanding that one spoken word corresponds with one written word.
• Know that in English, print is read from left to right and top to bottom.
• Read a range of common words on sight.
• Use phonic knowledge to read decodable words and to attempt to sound out some elements of unfamiliar words.
• Read aloud from simple books independently.
• Anticipate what happens next in a story.
• Talk about events in a story and make simple inferences about characters and events to show understanding.
• Recognise story elements, e.g. beginning, middle and end.
• Retell stories, with some appropriate use of story language.
• Talk about significant aspects of a story’s language, e.g. repetitive refrain, rhyme, patterned language.
• Enjoy a range of books, discussing preferences.
• Make links to own experiences.
• Learn and recite simple poems.
• Join in and extend rhymes and refrains, playing with language patterns.

Non-fiction
• Read labels, lists and captions to find information.
• Know the parts of a book, e.g. title page, contents.
• Show awareness that texts for different purposes look different,e.g. use of photographs, diagrams, etc.
• Read and talk about own writing.
Stage
Writing

Fiction
• Write simple storybooks with sentences to caption pictures.
• Write a sequence of sentences retelling a familiar story or recounting an experience.
• Begin to use some formulaic language, e.g. Once upon a time.
• Compose and write a simple sentence with a capital letter and a full stop.
• Use relevant vocabulary.

Non-fiction
• Write for a purpose using some basic features of text type.
• Write simple information texts with labels, captions, lists, questions and instructions for a purpose.
• Record answers to questions, e.g. as lists, charts.

Presentation
• Develop a comfortable and efficient pencil grip.
• Form letters correctly.


Speaking and listening
• Speak clearly and choose words carefully to express feelings and ideas when speaking of matters of immediate interest.
• Converse audibly with friends, teachers and other adults.
• Show some awareness of the listener through non-verbal communication.
• Answer questions and explain further when asked.
• Speak confidently to a group to share an experience.
• Take turns in speaking.
• Listen to others and respond appropriately.
• Listen carefully to questions and instructions.
• Engage in imaginative play, enacting simple characters or situations.
• Note that people speak in different ways for different purposes and meanings.

St

Stage 2

Phonics, spelling and vocabulary
• Learn the different common spellings of long vowel phonemes.
• Learn the different ways in which vowels can be pronounced, e.g. how, low; apple, apron.
• Apply knowledge of phonemes and spelling patterns in writing independently.
• Secure the spelling of high frequency words and common irregular words.
• Identify syllables and split familiar compound words into parts.
• Spell words with common prefixes and suffixes, e.g. un-, dis-,-ful, -ly.
• Build and use collections of interesting and significant words.
• Discuss the meaning of unfamiliar words encountered in reading.
• Choose interesting words and phrases, e.g. in describing people and places.

Grammar and punctuation

Reading
• Begin to read with fluency and expression, taking some notice of punctuation, including speech marks.
• Read and respond to question words, e.g. what, where, when, who, why.

Writing
• Write in clear sentences using capital letters, full stops and question marks.
• Use past and present tenses accurately but not always consistently.
• Use mainly simple and compound sentences, with and/but used to connect ideas. Because may begin to be used in a complex sentence.
• Begin to vary sentence openings, e.g. with simple adverbs.
• Use a variety of simple organisational devices in non-fiction,e.g. headings, captions.
• Begin to re-read own writing for sense and accuracy.

Reading
The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 2:
Fiction and poetry: real life stories, traditional tales from different
cultures, different stories by the same author, longer stories, poetry and plays.
Non-fiction: non-chronological report, instructions, explanation, reference texts.

Fiction and poetry
• Extend the range of common words recognised on sight.
• Use phonics as the main method of tackling unfamiliar words.
• Read aloud with increased accuracy, fluency and expression.
• Identify and describe story settings and characters, recognising that they may be from different times and places.
• Predict story endings.
• Make simple inferences from the words on the page, e.g. about feelings.
• Talk about what happens at the beginning, in the middle or at the end of a story.
• Comment on some vocabulary choices, e.g. adjectives.
• Begin to develop likes and dislikes in reading.
• Read poems and comment on words and sounds, rhyme and rhythm.

Non-fiction
• Read and follow simple instructions, e.g. in a recipe.
• Locate words by initial letter in simple dictionaries, glossaries and
indexes.
• Find answers to questions by reading a section of text.
• Find factual information from different formats, e.g. charts, labelled diagrams.
• Identify general features of known text types.
• Show some awareness that texts have different purposes.
• Explore a variety of non-fiction texts on screen.

Writing

Fiction
• Develop stories with a setting, characters and a sequence of events.
• Structure a story with a beginning, middle and end.
• Link ideas in sections, grouped by content.
• Find alternatives to and/then in developing a narrative and connecting ideas.
• Write with a variety of sentence types.
• Use the structures of familiar poems and stories in developing own writing.
• Begin to use dialogue in stories.
• Use the language of time, e.g. suddenly, after that.
• Choose some interesting words and phrases, e.g. in describing people and places.

Non-fiction
• Write simple evaluations of books read.
Write instructions and recount events and experiences.
Use features of chosen text type.
Use simple non-fiction texts as a model for writing.
Make simple notes from a section of non-fiction texts, e.g. listing key words.

Presentation
Form letters correctly and consistently.
Practise handwriting patterns and the joining of letters.


Speaking and listening
Recount experiences and explore possibilities.
Explain plans and ideas, extending them in the light of discussion.
Articulate clearly so that others can hear.
• Vary talk and expression to gain and hold the listener’s attention.
• Show awareness of the listener by including relevant details.
• Attempt to express ideas precisely, using a growing vocabulary.
• Listen carefully and respond appropriately, asking questions of others.
• Demonstrate ‘attentive listening’ and engage with another speaker.
• Extend experiences and ideas through role-play.
• Begin to be aware of ways in which speakers vary talk, for example the use of more formal vocabulary and tone of voice.
• Show awareness that speakers use a variety of ways of speaking in different situations and try out different ways of speaking.


Stage 3

Phonics, spelling and vocabulary
• Use effective strategies to tackle blending unfamiliar words to read, including sounding out, separating into syllables, using analogy, identifying known suffixes and prefixes, using context.
• Use and spell compound words.
• Know irregular forms of common verbs.
• Use effective strategies to tackle segmenting unfamiliar words to spell, including segmenting into individual sounds, separating into syllables, using analogy, identifying known suffixes and prefixes, applying known spelling rules, visual memory, mnemonics.
• Learn rules for adding -ing, -ed, -s to verbs.
• Extend earlier work on prefixes and suffixes.
• Explore words that have the same spelling but different meanings (homonyms), e.g. form, wave.
• Use a dictionary or electronic means to find the spelling and meaning of words.
• Organise words or information alphabetically using first two letters.
• Identify misspelt words in own writing and keep individual spelling logs.
• Consider how choice of words can heighten meaning.
• Infer the meaning of unknown words from the context.
• Explore vocabulary for introducing and concluding dialogue, e.g. said, asked.
• Generate synonyms for high frequency words, e.g. big, little, good.

Grammar and punctuation

Reading
• Use knowledge of punctuation and grammar to read age-appropriate texts with fluency, understanding and expression.
• Recognise the use of the apostrophe to mark omission in shortened words, e.g. can’t, don’t.
• Collect examples of nouns, verbs and adjectives, and use the terms appropriately.
• Identify pronouns and understand their function in a sentence.
• Understand that verbs are necessary for meaning in a sentence.
• Understand pluralisation and use the terms ‘singular’ and ‘plural’.

Writing
Maintain accurate use of capital letters and full stops in showing sentences.
• Learn the basic conventions of speech punctuation and begin to use speech marks.
• Use question marks, exclamation marks, and commas in lists.
• Continue to improve consistency in the use of tenses.
• Ensure grammatical agreement of pronouns and verbs in using standard English.
• Use a wider variety of sentence types including simple, compound and some complex sentences.
• Begin to vary sentence openings, e.g. with simple adverbs.


Reading
The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 3:
Fiction and poetry: real life stories, myths and legends, adventure
stories, poetry and plays.
Non-fiction: letters, reports, instructions, reference texts.

Fiction and poetry
• Sustain the reading of 48 and 64 page books, noting how a text is organised into sections or chapters.
• Read aloud with expression to engage the listener.
• Answer questions with some reference to single points in a text.
• Begin to infer meanings beyond the literal, e.g. about motives and character.
• Identify different types of stories and typical story themes.
• Identify the main points or gist of a text.
• Consider words that make an impact, e.g. adjectives and powerful verbs.
• Understand and use the terms ‘fact’, ‘fiction’ and ‘non-fiction’.
• Read a range of story, poetry and information books and begin to make links between them.
• Read and comment on different books by the same author.
• Read play-scripts and dialogue, with awareness of different voices.
• Practise learning and reciting poems.
Non-fiction
• Scan a passage to find specific information and answer questions.
• Locate information in non-fiction texts using contents page and index.
• Read and follow instructions to carry out an activity.
• Consider ways that information is set out on page and on screen, e.g. lists, charts, bullet points.
• Locate books by classification.
• Identify the main purpose of a text.
• Use ICT sources to locate simple information.


Writing

Fiction
• Write first-person accounts and descriptions based on observation.
• Develop descriptions of settings in stories.
• Write portraits of characters.
• Write simple play-scripts based on reading.
• Plan main points as a structure for story writing.
• Begin to organise writing in sections or paragraphs in extended stories.
• Develop range of adverbials to signal the relationship between events.
• Use reading as a model for writing dialogue.
• Write and perform poems, attending to the sound of words.
• Choose and compare words to strengthen the impact of writing, including noun phrases.

Non-fiction
• Write book reviews summarising what a book is about.
• Establish purpose for writing, using features and style based on model texts.
• Write letters, notes and messages.
• Make a record of information drawn from a text, e.g. by completing a chart.

Presentation
• Ensure consistency in the size and proportion of letters and the spacing of words.
• Practise joining letters in handwriting.
• Build up handwriting speed, fluency and legibility.
• Use ICT to write, edit and present work.


Speaking and listening
• Speak clearly and confidently in a range of contexts, including longer speaking turns.
• Adapt tone of voice, use of vocabulary and non-verbal features for different audiences.
• Take turns in discussion, building on what others have said.
• Listen and respond appropriately to others’ views and opinions.
• Listen and remember a sequence of instructions.
• Practise to improve performance when reading aloud.
• Begin to adapt movement to create a character in drama.
• Develop sensitivity to ways that others express meaning in their talk and non-verbal communication.


Stage 4

Phonics, spelling and vocabulary
• Extend knowledge and use of spelling patterns, e.g. vowel phonemes, double consonants, silent letters, common prefixes and suffixes.
• Confirm all parts of the verb to be and know when to use each one.
• Apply phonic/spelling, graphic, grammatical and contextual knowledge in reading unfamiliar words.
• Identify syllabic patterns in multisyllabic words.
• Spell words with common letter strings but different pronunciations, e.g. tough, through, trough, plough.
• Investigate spelling patterns; generate and test rules that govern them.
• Revise rules for spelling words with common inflections, e.g. -ing, -ed, -s.
• Extend earlier work on prefixes and suffixes.
• Match spelling to meaning when words sound the same (homophones), e.g. to/two/too, right/write.
• Use all the letters in sequence for alphabetical ordering.
• Check and correct spellings and identify words that need to be learned.
• Use more powerful verbs, e.g. rushed instead of went.
• Explore degrees of intensity in adjectives, e.g. cold, tepid, warm, hot.
• Look for alternatives for overused words and expressions.
• Collect and classify words with common roots, e.g. invent, prevent.
• Build words from other words with similar meanings, e.g. medical, medicine.

Grammar and punctuation

Reading
• Use knowledge of punctuation and grammar to read with fluency, understanding and expression.
• Identify all the punctuation marks and respond to them when reading.
• Learn the use of the apostrophe to show possession, e.g. girl’s, girls’.
• Practise using commas to mark out meaning within sentences.
• Identify adverbs and their impact on meaning.
• Investigate past, present and future tenses of verbs.
• Investigate the grammar of different sentences: statements, questions and orders.
• Understand the use of connectives to structure an argument, e.g. if, although.

Writing
• Use a range of end-of-sentence punctuation with accuracy.
• Use speech marks and begin to use other associated punctuation.
• Experiment with varying tenses within texts, e.g. in dialogue.
• Use a wider variety of connectives in an increasing range of sentences.
• Re-read own writing to check punctuation and grammatical sense.


Reading
The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 4:
Fiction and poetry: historical stories, stories set in imaginary worlds,
stories from other cultures, real life stories with issues/dilemmas,
poetry and plays including imagery.
Non-fiction: newspapers and magazines, reference texts,
explanations, persuasion including advertisements.

Fiction and poetry
• Extend the range of reading.
• Explore the different processes of reading silently and reading aloud.
• Investigate how settings and characters are built up from details and identify key words and phrases.
• Explore implicit as well as explicit meanings within a text.
• Recognise meaning in figurative language.
• Understand the main stages in a story from introduction to resolution.
• Explore narrative order and the focus on significant events.
• Retell or paraphrase events from the text in response to questions.
• Understand how expressive and descriptive language creates mood.
• Express a personal response to a text and link characters and settings to personal experience.
• Read further stories or poems by a favourite writer, and compare them.
• Read and perform play-scripts, exploring how scenes are built up.
• Explore the impact of imagery and figurative language in poetry,including alliteration and simile, e.g. as ... as a ....
• Compare and contrast poems and investigate poetic features.

Non-fiction
• Understand how points are ordered to make a coherent argument.
• Understand how paragraphs and chapters are used to organise ideas.
• Identify different types of non-fiction text and their known key features.
• Read newspaper reports and consider how they engage the reader.
• Investigate how persuasive writing is used to convince a reader.
• Note key words and phrases to identify the main points in a passage.
• Distinguish between fact and opinion in print and ICT sources.


Writing

Fiction
• Explore different ways of planning stories, and write longer stories from plans.
• Elaborate on basic information with some detail.
• Write character profiles, using detail to capture the reader’s imagination.
• Explore alternative openings and endings for stories.
• Begin to adopt a viewpoint as a writer, expressing opinions about characters or places.
• Begin to use paragraphs more consistently to organise and sequence ideas.
• Choose and compare words to strengthen the impact of writing, including some powerful verbs.

Non-fiction
• Explore the layout and presentation of writing, in the context of helping it to fit its purpose.
• Show awareness of the reader by adopting an appropriate style or viewpoint.
• Write newspaper-style reports, instructions and non-chronological reports.
• Present an explanation or a point of view in ordered points, e.g. in a letter.
• Collect and present information from non-fiction texts.
• Make short notes from a text and use these to aid writing.
• Summarise a sentence or a paragraph in a limited number of words.

Presentation
• Use joined-up handwriting in all writing.


Speaking and listening
• Organise ideas in a longer speaking turn to help the listener.
• Vary use of vocabulary and level of detail according to purpose.
• Understand the gist of an account or the significant points and
respond to main ideas with relevant suggestions and comments.
• Deal politely with opposing points of view.
• Listen carefully in discussion, contributing relevant comments and questions.
• Adapt the pace and loudness of speaking appropriately when performing or reading aloud.
• Adapt speech and gesture to create a character in drama.
• Comment on different ways that meaning can be expressed in own and others’ talk.


Stage 5

Phonics, spelling and vocabulary
• Investigate the spelling of word-final unstressed vowels, e.g. the unstressed ‘er’ at the end of butter and unstressed ‘ee’ at the end of city.
• Recognise a range of less common letter strings in words which may be pronounced differently.
• Spell and make correct use of possessive pronouns, e.g. their, theirs, my, mine.
• Identify ‘silent’ vowels in polysyllabic words, e.g. library, interest.
• Use effective strategies for learning new spellings and misspelt words.
• Learn spelling rules for words ending in -e and -y, e.g. take/taking, try/tries.
• Know rules for doubling consonants and investigate patterns in the use of single and double consonants, e.g. -full/-ful.
• Investigate spelling patterns for pluralisation, e.g. -s, -es, -y/-ies, -f/-ves.
• Extend earlier work on prefixes and suffixes, recognising that different spelling rules apply for suffixes which begin with vowels and those that begin with consonants.
• Investigate ways of creating opposites, e.g. un-, im- and comparatives, e.g. -er, -est.
• Revise grammatical homophones, e.g. they’re, their, there.
• Use dictionaries efficiently and carry out ICT spell checks.
• Identify unfamiliar words, explore definitions and use new words in context.
• Extend understanding of the use of adverbs to qualify verbs, e.g. in dialogue.
• Use a thesaurus to extend vocabulary and choice of words.
• Collect synonyms and opposites and investigate shades of meaning.
• Use known spellings to work out the spelling of related words.
• Identify word roots and derivations to support spelling and vocabulary, e.g. sign, signal, signature.
• Investigate the origin and appropriate use of idiomatic phrases.


Grammar and punctuation

Reading
• Learn how dialogue is set out and punctuated.
• Identify prepositions and use the term.
• Understand conventions of standard English, e.g. agreement of verbs.
• Understand the difference between direct and reported speech.
• Investigate clauses within sentences and how they are connected.
Writing
• Begin to use the comma to separate clauses within sentences and clarify meaning in complex sentences.
• Use apostrophes for both possession and shortened forms.
• Begin to set out dialogue appropriately, using a range of punctuation.
• Use an increasing range of subordinating connectives.
• Explore ways of combining simple sentences and re-ordering clauses to make compound and complex sentences.
• Use pronouns, making clear to what or to whom they refer.
• Practise proofreading and editing own writing for clarity and correctness.


Reading
The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 5:
Fiction and poetry: novels and longer stories, fables, myths and
legends, stories from other cultures, older literature including
traditional tales, poetry and plays including film narrative and dramatic
conventions.
Non-fiction: instructions, recounts (including biography), persuasion.

Fiction and poetry
• Read widely and explore the features of different fiction genres.
• Provide accurate textual reference from more than one point in a story to support answers to questions.
• Compare the structure of different stories.
• Comment on a writer’s use of language and explain reasons for writer’s choices.
• Begin to interpret imagery and techniques, e.g. metaphor, personification, simile, adding to understanding beyond the literal.
• Discuss metaphorical expressions and figures of speech.
• Identify the point of view from which a story is told.
• Consider how a writer expresses their own point of view, e.g. how characters are presented.
• Read and identify characteristics of myths, legends and fables.
• Compare and evaluate the print and film versions of a novel or play.
• Compare dialogue and dramatic conventions in film narrative.
• Read and perform narrative poems.
• Read poems by significant poets and compare style, forms and themes.

Non-fiction
• Look for information in non-fiction texts to build on what is already known.
• Locate information confidently and efficiently from different sources.
• Skim read to gain an overall sense of a text and scan for specific information.
• Develop note-taking to extract key points and to group and link ideas.
• Note the use of persuasive devices, words and phrases in print and other media.
• Explore the features of texts which are about events and experiences, e.g. diaries.
• Understand the use of impersonal style in explanatory texts.
• Read and evaluate non-fiction texts for purpose, style, clarity and organisation.
• Compare writing that informs and persuades.


Writing
Fiction
• Map out writing to plan structure, e.g. paragraphs, sections, chapters.
• Write new scenes or characters into a story, or write from another viewpoint.
• Write own versions of legends, myths and fables, using structures from reading.
• Choose words and phrases carefully to convey feeling and atmosphere.
• Maintain a consistent viewpoint when writing.
• Begin to attempt to establish links between paragraphs using adverbials.
• Write a play-script, including production notes to guide performance.
• Use imagery and figurative language to evoke imaginative response.
Non-fiction
• Record ideas, reflections and predictions about books, e.g. in a reading log.
• Draft and write letters for real purposes.
• Use a more specialised vocabulary to match the topic.
• Write non-chronological reports and explanations.
• Write a commentary on an issue, setting out and justifying a personal view.
• Make notes for different purposes, using simple abbreviations and writing ‘in your own words’.
• Understand the use of notes in writing ‘in your own words’.
• Evaluate own and others’ writing.

Presentation
• Review, revise and edit writing in order to improve it, using ICT as appropriate.

Speaking and listening
• Shape and organise ideas clearly when speaking to aid listener.
• Prepare and present an argument to persuade others to adopt a point of view.
• Talk confidently in extended turns and listen purposefully in a range of contexts.
• Begin to adapt non-verbal gestures and vocabulary to suit content and audience.
• Describe events and convey opinions with increasing clarity and detail.
• Recall and discuss important features of a talk, possibly contributing new ideas.
• Ask questions to develop ideas and extend understanding.
• Report back to a group, using notes to present findings about a topic studied. Evaluate what is heard and give reasons for agreement or disagreement.
• Take different roles and responsibilities within a group.
• Convey ideas about characters in drama through deliberate choice of speech, gesture and movement.
• Begin to discuss how and why language choices vary in different situations.


 Stage 6

Phonics, spelling and vocabulary
• Learn word endings with different spellings but the same pronunciation, e.g. -tion, -cian, -sion, -ssion; -ance, -ence.
• Confirm correct choices when representing consonants, e.g. ‘ck’/’k’/’ke’/’que’/’ch’; ‘ch’/’tch’; ‘j’/’dj’/’dje’.
• Continue to learn words, apply patterns and improve accuracy in spelling.
• Further investigate spelling rules and exceptions, including representing unstressed vowels.
• Develop knowledge of word roots, prefixes and suffixes, including recognising variations, e.g. im, in, ir, il; ad, ap, af, al and knowing when to use double consonants.
• Know how to transform meaning with prefixes and suffixes.
• Investigate meanings and spellings of connectives.
• Explore definitions and shades of meaning and use new words in context.
• Explore word origins and derivations and the use of words from other languages.
• Understand changes over time in words and expressions and their use.
• Explore proverbs, sayings and figurative expressions.


Grammar and punctuation

Reading
• Identify uses of the colon, semi-colon, parenthetic commas, dashes and brackets.
• Revise different word classes.
• Investigate the use of conditionals, e.g. to express possibility.
• Begin to show awareness of the impact of writers’ choices of sentence length and structure.
• Revise language conventions and grammatical features of different types of text.
• Explore use of active and passive verbs within a sentence.
• Understand the conventions of standard English usage in different forms of writing.
• Distinguish the main clause and other clauses in a complex sentence.


Phonics, spelling and vocabulary
• Learn word endings with different spellings but the same pronunciation, e.g. -tion, -cian, -sion, -ssion; -ance, -ence.
• Confirm correct choices when representing consonants, e.g. ‘ck’/’k’/’ke’/’que’/’ch’; ‘ch’/’tch’; ‘j’/’dj’/’dje’.
• Continue to learn words, apply patterns and improve accuracy in spelling.
• Further investigate spelling rules and exceptions, including representing unstressed vowels.
• Develop knowledge of word roots, prefixes and suffixes, including recognising variations, e.g. im, in, ir, il; ad, ap, af, al and knowing when to use double consonants.
• Know how to transform meaning with prefixes and suffixes.
• Investigate meanings and spellings of connectives.
• Explore definitions and shades of meaning and use new words in context.
• Explore word origins and derivations and the use of words from other languages.
• Understand changes over time in words and expressions and their use.
• Explore proverbs, sayings and figurative expressions.

Grammar and punctuation

Reading
• Identify uses of the colon, semi-colon, parenthetic commas, dashes and brackets.
• Revise different word classes.
• Investigate the use of conditionals, e.g. to express possibility.
• Begin to show awareness of the impact of writers’ choices of sentence length and structure.
• Revise language conventions and grammatical features of different types of text.
• Explore use of active and passive verbs within a sentence.
• Understand the conventions of standard English usage in different forms of writing.
• Distinguish the main clause and other clauses in a complex sentence.

Writing
• Punctuate speech and use apostrophes accurately.
• Use a wider range of connectives to clarify relationships between ideas, e.g. however, therefore, although.
• Use connectives to structure an argument or discussion.
• Develop grammatical control of complex sentences, manipulating them for effect.
• Develop increasing accuracy in using punctuation effectively to mark out the meaning in complex sentences.


Reading
The following genres and text types are recommended at Stage 6:
Fiction: various genres including science fiction, extended narratives,
stories with flashbacks, poetry and plays including imagery.
Non-fiction: instructions, recounts (including biography and
autobiography), diaries, journalistic writing, argument and discussion,
formal and impersonal writing.

Fiction and poetry
• Develop familiarity with the work of established authors and poets,identifying features which are common to more than one text.
• Consider how the author manipulates the reaction of the reader, e.g. how characters and settings are presented.
• Look for implicit meanings, and make plausible inferences based on more than one point in the text.
• Understand aspects of narrative structure, e.g. the handling of time.
• Analyse the success of writing in evoking particular moods, e.g. suspense.
• Paraphrase explicit meanings based on information at more than one point in the text.
• Comment on writer’s use of language, demonstrating awareness of its impact on the reader.
• Begin to develop awareness that the context for which the writer is writing and the context in which the reader is reading can impact on how the text is understood.
• Take account of viewpoint in a novel, and distinguish voice of author from that of narrator.
• Discuss and express preferences in terms of language, style and themes.
• Articulate personal responses to reading, with close reference to the text.
• Explore how poets manipulate and play with words and their sounds.
• Read and interpret poems in which meanings are implied or multilayered.

Non-fiction
• Analyse how paragraphs and chapters are structured and linked.
• Recognise key characteristics of a range of non-fiction text types.
• Explore autobiography and biography, and first and third person narration.
• Identify features of balanced written arguments.
• Compare the language, style and impact of a range of non-fiction writing.
• Distinguish between fact and opinion in a range of texts and other media.

Writing

Fiction
• Plan plot, characters and structure effectively in writing an extended story.
• Manage the development of an idea throughout a piece of writing, e.g. link the end to the beginning.
• Establish and maintain a clear viewpoint, with some elaboration of personal voice.
• Use different genres as models for writing.
• Use paragraphs, sequencing and linking them appropriately to support overall development of the text.
• Use a range of devices to support cohesion within paragraphs.
• Develop some imaginative detail through careful use of vocabulary and style.

Non-fiction
• Use the styles and conventions of journalism to write reports on events.
• Adapt the conventions of the text type for a particular purpose.
• Select appropriate non-fiction style and form to suit specific purposes.
• Write non-chronological reports linked to work in other subjects.
• Develop skills of writing biography and autobiography in role.
• Argue a case in writing, developing points logically and convincingly.
• Write a balanced report of a controversial issue.
• Summarise a passage, chapter or text in a given number of words.

Presentation
• Use ICT effectively to prepare and present writing for publication.


Speaking and listening
• Express and explain ideas clearly, making meaning explicit.
• Use spoken language well to persuade, instruct or make a case, e.g. in a debate.
• Vary vocabulary, expression and tone of voice to engage the listener and suit the audience, purpose and context.
• Structure talk to aid a listener’s understanding and engagement.
• Speak confidently in formal and informal contexts.
• Pay close attention in discussion to what others say, asking and answering questions to introduce new ideas.
• Help to move group discussion forward, e.g. by clarifying, summarising.
• Prepare, practise and improve a spoken presentation or performance.
• Convey ideas about characters in drama in different roles and scenarios through deliberate choice of speech, gesture and movement.
• Reflect on variations in speech, and appropriate use of standard English.

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